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0423 - 知識與實在:認知科學的哲學 Philosophy of Cognitive Science


教育目標 Course Target

一、智慧型電腦的競爭權勢──機器人、人工智能、網路的控制是否會嚴重威脅人類的生存?例如:電腦晶片殖入人體創造新人類,人類的能力受到威脅(不只是勞動力被取代產生社會問題);機器人、人工智能新武器能否殘殺人類到無招架之力? (倫理反省)人工智能的應用倫理學:機器人做得像人、甚至超人;人部份殖入機器系統,從輔助到超人,於是產生「競爭權勢」的問題: 二、萬種心靈,層次(levels)不同 心靈最細膩之處,是什麼?是身心靈三者之一,還是有分有合? (i). 是靈魂嗎?靈魂是什麼?如何解釋? (ii). 是觀念(Platon, idealism, rationalism)嗎? (iii). 是與社會融合為一的大我感嗎(e.g. Faust)? (iv). 是釋放到癲狂程度的文學藝術心靈嗎(e.g. 尼采、梵谷)? 三、解釋心靈是如何構成的? 1. 心靈是什麼?如何與物質因果關係區分?狗有心靈嗎?細菌、病毒呢?人心是能力組合嗎?氣溫調節器、速度調節器是一種心靈嗎?運動有心靈嗎(在學習什麼?)? 2. 人心如何運作?從理性主義、經驗主義、行為主義,到心理學實驗與理論、腦神經科學的理論與模型,這是心靈表徵(representation)與過程(process)的議題。 3. 機器人如何能夠靈活運動與判斷?心靈能夠獨立於身體、環境、社會關係之外而存在嗎? 4. 意識如何構成?意識有多種,從腦內刺激、現象意識、到自我意識,是什麼控制著形成意識的過程? 四、科學方法論 1. 化約論(reductivism)的高張與貧乏,二十世紀初的邏輯實証論、上半葉的行為主義;與此對照,認知科學裡提出意識難題(the hard problem of consciousness);心理學反行為主義,卻走向腦神經化約主義; 2. 訴諸比喻(metaphor)的理解:心靈像digital computer、神經網路、動態系統、問題解決的過程(mental processes, mental operations)、機器人吸塵器? 3. 「資料結構」的問題:心靈有著什麼樣的表徵(mental representation )? 4. 內外問題:心在身體之內有一個個體(individual)嗎?或心構成於內外互動,整合身體、環境與社會? 5. 統合論(eclecticism):如何整合?從maniford夠整合出一個unity嗎?Mind (Thagard, 2005)是統合論;Metzinger說:there is no such thing as the self! Ned Block (1995) 分別phenomenal consciousness 以及functional consciousness (self-consciousness ) 6. 科學的新典範:跨領域的討論、學習、與研究;以對人心的理解設計電腦模型,以對人與動物的電腦模擬(對比於自然科學運用統計來找規律)來了解人心。 First, the competitive power of smart computers ─ ─ robot, artificial intelligence, Internet control will seriously threaten the survival of mankind? For example: computer chips into the human body to create new human beings, human beings are threatened (not just the workforce is replaced by social problems); robots, artificial intelligence, new weapons can kill humans without any parrying power? (Ethical introspection) Artificial Intelligence Applied Ethics: Robots behave like humans and even superhumans; Some colonize machine systems, from assisting to superhumans, resulting in problems of "competitive power": Second, thousands of hearts, different levels (levels) What is the most delicate soul? Is one of the three body and mind, or is there a sub-joint? (i) is the soul? What is the soul? How to explain? (ii) Is Platon, idealism, rationalism? (iii). Is it a big sense of social integration (eg Faust)? (iv) Is it a literary and artistic mind that is released to the extent of madness (eg Nietzsche, Van Gogh)? Third, explain how the soul is formed? What is the heart? How to distinguish between material and causal relationship? Do dogs have a soul? Bacteria, viruses? People are the ability to combine it? Temperature regulator, speed regulator is a kind of mind it? Is there exercise of mind (what are you studying?)? How do people work? From rationalism, empiricism, behaviorism to theory and model of psychology experiment and theory, brain neuroscience, this is the topic of teleological representation and process. 3. How can robots exercise and judge flexibly? Can the mind exist independently of the body, environment and social relations? 4. Consciousness how to form? A variety of consciousness, from the brain stimulation, phenomenal awareness, to self-awareness, what controls the process of forming awareness? Fourth, scientific methodology 1. Highness and Deficiency of Reductivism, Logical Positivism of the Early Twentieth Century, Behaviorism of the First Half; In contrast, the hard problem of consciousness is raised in cognitive science; Behavioralism, but to craniocognosyism; 2. Recall Metaphors: Minds like digital computer, neural networks, dynamic systems, mental processes, robot cleaners? 3. The Question of "Data Structure": What kind of mental representation does the mind have? 4. Internal and external questions: Does the heart have an individual within the body? Or heart formed inside and outside interaction, integration of body, environment and society? 5. eclecticism (eclecticism): how to integrate? From maniford enough to integrate a unity? Mind (Thagard, 2005) is an integration theory; Metzinger says: there is no such thing as the self! Ned Block (1995) respectively phenomenal consciousness and functional consciousness (self-consciousness) 6. New paradigm of science: cross-cutting discussions, learning, and research; designing computer models based on understanding of the human mind to understand the minds of humans and animals in computer simulations (as opposed to the use of statistics by the natural sciences).


參考書目 Reference Books

教科書:

Clark, A. (2013). Mindware : An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (1st edition, published 2000, .pdf file is available in the web)



Textbook:

Clark, A. (2013). Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (1st edition, published 2000, .pdf file is available in the web)



評分方式 Grading

評分項目 Grading Method 配分比例 Grading percentage 說明 Description
出缺席出缺席
Out of office
20
期中考期中考
Midterm test
30 第十二週考
期末報告期末報告
Final report
50 第十四週交摘要,第十八週交全文,三至六千字
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Course Information

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學分 Credit:2-0
上課時間 Course Time:Monday/7,8[H318]
授課教師 Teacher:劉希文
修課班級 Class:共選修2-4 (哲學系開)
選課備註 Memo:專題

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