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0423 - 知識與實在:認知科學的哲學 Philosophy of Cognitive Science


教育目標 Course Target

一、智慧型電腦的競爭權勢──機器人、人工智能、網路的控制是否會嚴重威脅人類的生存?例如:電腦晶片殖入人體創造新人類,人類的能力受到威脅(不只是勞動力被取代產生社會問題);機器人、人工智能新武器能否殘殺人類到無招架之力? (倫理反省)人工智能的應用倫理學:機器人做得像人、甚至超人;人部份殖入機器系統,從輔助到超人,於是產生「競爭權勢」的問題: 二、萬種心靈,層次(levels)不同 心靈最細膩之處,是什麼?是身心靈三者之一,還是有分有合? (i). 是靈魂嗎?靈魂是什麼?如何解釋? (ii). 是觀念(Platon, idealism, rationalism)嗎? (iii). 是與社會融合為一的大我感嗎(e.g. Faust)? (iv). 是釋放到癲狂程度的文學藝術心靈嗎(e.g. 尼采、梵谷)? 三、解釋心靈是如何構成的? 1. 心靈是什麼?如何與物質因果關係區分?狗有心靈嗎?細菌、病毒呢?人心是能力組合嗎?氣溫調節器、速度調節器是一種心靈嗎?運動有心靈嗎(在學習什麼?)? 2. 人心如何運作?從理性主義、經驗主義、行為主義,到心理學實驗與理論、腦神經科學的理論與模型,這是心靈表徵(representation)與過程(process)的議題。 3. 機器人如何能夠靈活運動與判斷?心靈能夠獨立於身體、環境、社會關係之外而存在嗎? 4. 意識如何構成?意識有多種,從腦內刺激、現象意識、到自我意識,是什麼控制著形成意識的過程? 四、科學方法論 1. 化約論(reductivism)的高張與貧乏,二十世紀初的邏輯實証論、上半葉的行為主義;與此對照,認知科學裡提出意識難題(the hard problem of consciousness);心理學反行為主義,卻走向腦神經化約主義; 2. 訴諸比喻(metaphor)的理解:心靈像digital computer、神經網路、動態系統、問題解決的過程(mental processes, mental operations)、機器人吸塵器? 3. 「資料結構」的問題:心靈有著什麼樣的表徵(mental representation )? 4. 內外問題:心在身體之內有一個個體(individual)嗎?或心構成於內外互動,整合身體、環境與社會? 5. 統合論(eclecticism):如何整合?從maniford夠整合出一個unity嗎?Mind (Thagard, 2005)是統合論;Metzinger說:there is no such thing as the self! Ned Block (1995) 分別phenomenal consciousness 以及functional consciousness (self-consciousness ) 6. 科學的新典範:跨領域的討論、學習、與研究;以對人心的理解設計電腦模型,以對人與動物的電腦模擬(對比於自然科學運用統計來找規律)來了解人心。 First, the wisdom of the computer's competitive power ─ ─ robot, artificial intelligence, network control will seriously threaten the survival of mankind? For example: computer chip into the human body to create new human beings, the human ability to be threatened (not just the labor force is replaced by social problems); robots, artificial intelligence can kill new weapons to no parry force? (Ethical introspection) The application of artificial intelligence Ethics: robots do like people, and even Superman; part of the body into the machine system, from the auxiliary to the Superman, then produce a "competitive power" Second, million kinds of mind, level (levels) is different The most delicate of the mind, what is it? Is one of the three hearts and minds, or have points together? (i) is the soul? What is the soul? How to explain (ii) is the idea (Platon, idealism, rationalism)? (iii) is a big sense of integration with the community (e.g. Faust)? (iv) Is the literary art mind released to the degree of mania (like Nietzsche, Van Gogh)? Third, explain how the mind is made up? What is the mind How is it different from material causality? Does the dog have a mind? Bacteria, viruses? Is the ability to be a combination of people? Is the temperature regulator a mind? What is the movement? 2. How does the people work? From rationalism, empiricism, behaviorism, to psychoanalysis and theory, the theory and model of neuroscience, which is the subject of spiritual representation and process. 3. How can robots move and judge flexibly? Is the mind independent of the body, the environment, and the social relations? 4. How does consciousness constitute There are many kinds of consciousness, from the brain to stimulate, the phenomenon of consciousness, to self-consciousness, what is the process of controlling the formation of consciousness? Fourth, scientific methodology 1. The theory of reducibility of reductivism, the logical theory of theory at the beginning of the twentieth century, and the behavioralism of the first half of the leaves. In contrast, cognitive hardness (the hard problem of consciousness) Behaviorism, but to the cranialism of the doctrine; 2. Metaphor understanding: the mind like digital computer, neural network, dynamic system, mental processes, mental operations, robot vacuum cleaner 3. "Data structure" problem: what kind of representation of the mind (mental representation)? 4. inside and outside the question: the heart within the body has an individual (individual)? Or heart composed of internal and external interaction, integration of the body, the environment and society? 5. ecology (eclecticism): how to integrate? From maniford to integrate a unity? Mind (Thagard, 2005) is the theory of unity; Metzinger said: there is no such thing as the self! Ned Block (1995) were phenomenal consciousness and functional consciousness (self-consciousness) 6. New paradigm of science: cross-cutting discussion, learning, and research; designing a computer model with a compassion for the minds of people to understand the human and animal computer simulation (compared to the use of natural science to find the law) to understand the people.


參考書目 Reference Books

教科書:

Clark, A. (2013). Mindware : An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (1st edition, published 2000, .pdf file is available in the web)



Textbook:

Clark, A. (2013). Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, 2nd edition, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (1st edition, published 2000, .pdf file is available in the web)



評分方式 Grading

評分項目 Grading Method 配分比例 Grading percentage 說明 Description
出缺席出缺席
Out of absence
20
期中考期中考
Midterm test
30 第十二週考
期末報告期末報告
Final report
50 第十四週交摘要,第十八週交全文,三至六千字
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Course Information

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學分 Credit:2-0
上課時間 Course Time:Monday/7,8[H318]
授課教師 Teacher:劉希文
修課班級 Class:共選修2-4 (哲學系開)
選課備註 Memo:專題

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