說到「靈魂」, 不知道你想到的是什麼? 是某種精神性的、非物質的存有? 或者你會把它關連到宗教? 亞里斯多德的《論靈魂》談論靈魂, 然而它不預設迪卡爾式的心物二元論, 也和宗教沒有關係, 它讀起來比較像是生物學。
亞里斯多德認為, 生物(a living thing)包含了身體(body)和靈魂(soul)。身體具有發展出生命(life)的潛能, 靈魂是一種使得身體之為其所是的形式(form)。任何東西若具有智能(intellect)、知覺(perception)、移動(moving)、或滋養(nourishment)的能力, 則它是活的、有靈魂的。亞里斯多德把靈魂當做是這些能力的管理原則, 在Book II & Book III對這些能力加以定義和分析。II 4討論滋養的能力。所有生物, 包括植物, 皆有此能力。它是去繁殖、食用食物, 以使生物攝取營養和保存生命。II 5 - III 2討論知覺的能力、五種官能、可感知的對象等。所有動物皆有知覺的能力。亞里斯多德在III 3引進了想像力(imagination), 它既非感覺也非思想, 但卻連結了二者。從III 4開始, 亞里斯多德討論心靈(mind)和思考(thinking), III 9 & 10討論移動的能力, 並涉及了自由和意志薄弱等議題。從III 4開始一直至文末或許是本書最重要的篇章, 亞里斯多德在這裡分析了理論推論和實踐推論, 時至今日, 其想法仍深深影響許多哲學家。
在這門課, 我們讀《論靈魂》這本書。Speaking of "the soul", do not know what you think is a kind of spiritual, non-material existence? Or you will turn it to religion? Aristotle's "on the soul" to talk about the soul, but it Do not pre-set Dickar-style dualistic theory of mind, but also has nothing to do with religion, it is more like reading biology.
Aristotle argues that a living thing contains the body and the soul. The body has the potential to develop life, the soul is a form that makes the body the form. Anything that has intelligence, intellect, perception, moving, or nourishment, it is alive and soulful. Aristotle regards the soul as the management principle of these abilities, and defines and analyzes these capabilities in Book II & Book III. II 4 discuss the ability to nourish. All creatures, including plants, have this ability. It is to reproduce, eat food, so that the biological intake of nutrients and save life. II 5 - III 2 discuss the ability of perception, five functions, perceivable objects, and so on. All animals have the ability to perceive. Aristotle introduced imagination in III 3, which neither felt nor thought, but linked the two. Beginning with III 4, Aristotle discusses mind and thinking, III 9 & 10 discusses the ability to move and involves issues such as freedom and weak will. From III 4 to the end of the book is perhaps the most important chapter of this book, Aristotle here to analyze the theoretical deduction and practical reasoning, today, its ideas still deeply affect many philosophers.
In this course, we read the book "On the Soul".
Aristotle, and Mark Shiffman. De Anima. Newburyport, MA: Focus/R. Pullins, 2011.
Aristotle, and Mark Shiffman. De Anima. Newburyport, MA: Focus / R. Pullins, 2011.
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